The kidneys, organs with several functions, serve essential regulatory roles in most animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are essentoial in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as thethe

 regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid-base balance, and regulation of blood pressure (via maintaining salt and water balance). They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium; the kidneys also are responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol, renin, and erythropoietin.
Located at the rear of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneum, the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins. Each kidney excretes urine into a ureter, itself a paired structure that empties into the urinary bladder.
Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with kidney diseases. Diseases of the kidney are diverse, but individuals with kidney disease frequently display characteristic clinical features. Common clinical conditions involving the kidney include the nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, renal cysts, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, urinary tract infection, nephrolithiasis, and urinary tract obstruction. Various cancers of the kidney exist; the most common adult renal cancer is renal cell carcinoma. Cancers, cysts, and some other renal conditions can be managed with removal of the kidney, or nephrectomy. When renal function, measured by glomerular filtration rate, is persistently poor, dialysis and kidney transplantation may be treatment options. Although they are not severely harmful, kidney stones can be a pain and a nuisance. The removal of kidney stones includes sound wave treatment, which breaks up the stones into smaller pieces which are then passed through the urinary tract. One common symptom of kidney stones is a sharp pain in the medial/lateral segments of the lower back.   kidney is one of the most specialist organ in human body, it play a very infortant role in human excretory system, all vertiverate have a pair of kidney which form part of urinary system. In mammals, the kidney are in bean shape, dark red in colour and it surounded by fibrous cabsol and fat which give them a position(place). In human a kidney is located at the phosporial end of the abdominal cavity of either side of vertiveral colum. The left kidney is slightly lies above than the right kidney and it measure to 10 to 20cm long.

     The kidney received oxygenated blood containing excretory products from the aorta through the renal atery, a renal vein drains filted deoxygenated blood from the kidney to the posterio, while ureta have carry urine to urinary blader.  

  The infortance of kidney can not be overemphersize, thought there are some diseases called kidney diseases that affect the kidney from carrying out it’s activities effectively and may even cause kidney failure which may lead to the kidney transplanting, kidney failure is now one of the major problems affecting thausand of patients in our various hospitals. Amongs those diseases include KIDNEY STONES, which is my consern as well as the topic of discausion, others are NEPHRITIS and DIURESIS etc.

       KIDNEY STONES:= is a kidney disease causes by some tiny solid perticles (eg calcium phosphate)

       EFFECT:= 1. Great difficulty when passing out urine.

                      2. Sever abdominal pains.

                      3. Higher blood pressure may be experience.etc 

         REMEDY:= 1. Drinking suffecient water and other fluid such as fruit juice especialy during hot weather.

                            2. Avoid food items that are hard to digest.

                          3. Avoid excessive intake of food containing much calcium. 

                          4. Drugs prescribes by doctor, some drugs are capable of dissolving kidney stones.

                       5. Surgery, if drugs fail, surgery is performed to remove the stones.

  Finaly i will like to use this opportunity and medium to call on the general public to be causion on what they eat, drink, where they sleep and their entire environment for good health and development, as our doctors always adviced, course health is a wealth.