CANDIDiASIS. Candidiasis is a type of fungal infection due to any type of candidia i.e any type of yeast. When it affects the mouth it is commonly called thrush.It is commonly identified by the white patches on the tongue or other areas of the mouth and throat. Other symptoms may include soreness and problem swallowing. When it affects the vagina it is commonly called yeast infection. Sign and symptoms include genital itching, burning and sometimes a white “cottage cheese like” from the vagina. Less commonly the penis may be affected resulting in itchiness.Very rarely the infection may become invasive spreading throughout the body resulting in fever along with other symptoms depending on the part of the body affected. Many types of candidia cause diseases with candidia albican being the most common. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS. The sign and symptoms vary depending on the area affected.Most candidal infection result in minimal complications such as redness, itching and discomfort though complication may be severe or even fatal if left untreated.In immunocompeten(healthy persons)candidiasis is usually a localised infection of the skin,fingernail, toenail or mucosal membrane including the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Common symptoms of gastrointestinal candidiasis in healthy individuals are anal itching, belching, indigestion, nausea, diarrhoea, gas, vomiting and gastric ulcer. CAUSES Candida yeast are generally present in healthy humans,frequently part of the human body’s normal oral and intestinal flora; and particularly on the skin, however their growth is normally limited by human immune system, and by competition of other micro organisms such as bacteria occupying the same location in the human body.Candida requires moisture for growth notably on the skin. For example, wearing a wet swimwear for long period of time is believed to be a risk factor. HIV/AIDS is one of the factors that increase the condition apart from cancer, mononucleosis, steroid, stress among others. DIAGNOSIS. Diagnosis of yeast infection is done either via microscopic examination or culturing. For identification using a light microscope, a scrapping or swab of the affected area is placed on a microscope slide. A single drop of 10% potassium hydroxide KOH solution is then added to the specimen.The KOH dissolves the skin cells but leave the candidia cells intact permitting the visualization of psedohyphae and budding yeast cells typical of many candidia species. PREVENTION. -A diet that supports the immune system and is not high in simple carbohydrate contributes to a healthy balance of the oral and intestinal flora. -Wearing a cotton underwear may help to reduce the risk of developing skin and vaginal yeast infection. – Oral hygiene can help prevent oral candidiasis when people have a weakened immune system. TREATMENT. Candidiasis is treated with antifungal medications; these include clotrimazole, nystatin, flucanazole, voricanazole, amphotericin B. Intravenous flucanazole or an intravenous echinocandin such as caspofungin are commonly used to treat immunocompromised or critically ill individuals.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts that belong to the genus

Candida . There are over 20 species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is

Candida albicans . Candida yeasts normally reside in the intestinal tract and can be found on mucous membranes and skin without causing infection; however, overgrowth of these organisms can cause symptoms to develop. Symptoms of candidiasis vary depending on the area of the body that is infected.

Candidiasis that develops in the mouth or throat is called “ thrush” or oropharyngeal candidiasis. Candidiasis in the vagina is commonly referred to as a “ yeast infection.” Invasive candidiasis occurs when Candida species enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body. Click the links below for more information on the different types of

Candida infections.

For other fungal topics, visit the fungal diseases homepage.

Types of Candidiasis

Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis

Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis

Invasive Candidiasis

Global Emergence of Candida auris

Candida auris is an emerging fungus that presents a serious global health threat. Healthcare facilities in several countries have reported that C. auris has caused severe illness in hospitalized patients. C. auris is often resistant to multiple antifungal drugs.



What is hepatitis?A: Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.

​There are 5 main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E. These 5 types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread. In particular, types B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and, together, are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer.

Hepatitis A and E are typically caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B, C and D usually occur as a result of parenteral contact with infected body fluids. Common modes of transmission for these viruses include receipt of contaminated blood or blood products, invasive medical procedures using contaminated equipment and for hepatitis B transmission from mother to baby at birth, from family member to child, and also by sexual contact.

Acute infection may occur with limited or no symptoms, or may include symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.

Q: What are the different hepatitis viruses?

A: Scientists have identified 5 unique hepatitis viruses, identified by the letters A, B, C, D, and E. While all cause liver disease, they vary in important ways.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is present in the faeces of infected persons and is most often transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. Certain sex practices can also spread HAV. Infections are in many cases mild, with most people making a full recovery and remaining immune from further HAV infections. However, HAV infections can also be severe and life threatening. Most people in areas of the world with poor sanitation have been infected with this virus. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HAV.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted through exposure to infective blood, semen, and other body fluids. HBV can be transmitted from infected mothers to infants at the time of birth or from family member to infant in early childhood. Transmission may also occur through transfusions of HBV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. HBV also poses a risk to healthcare workers who sustain accidental needle stick injuries while caring for infected-HBV patients. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mostly transmitted through exposure to infective blood. This may happen through transfusions of HCV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. Sexual transmission is also possible, but is much less common. There is no vaccine for HCV.

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections occur only in those who are infected with HBV. The dual infection of HDV and HBV can result in a more serious disease and worse outcome. Hepatitis B vaccines provide protection from HDV infection.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is mostly transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. HEV is a common cause of hepatitis outbreaks in developing parts of the world and is increasingly recognized as an important cause of disease in developed countries. Safe and effective vaccines to prevent HEV infection have been developed but are not widely available.