Tuberculosis


Meaning Of Tuberculosis
Toberculosis:- Is a chronic infectious disease that primarily affect the lungs(pulmonary TB or PTB)but can also spread to any part of the body (Extra pulmonary TB).The Causative Agent Of TB  is Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

How Does TB Spread

1- TB is spread by droplet nuclei

2- Expelled when person will infectious TB sneezes,speaks,spits or sings

3- Transmission is air bone through  inhalation of the released TB germs.

Common Sites Of TB Disease

1-Vertebral spine

2-Bone

3-Joint

4-Kidney &Urinary track

5-Upper respiratory tract (larynx)

6-Plueral membrane of lungs

7- Meninges of the brain (Meningitis)

8-Lymph node

9-Skin

Symptoms Of TB

  • Fever
  • Cough(>2wks)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tiredness
  • Coughing out blood
  • Chest pain 
  • Night sweats
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss

Global TB Burden 2015

  1. 1/3 of world’s  population is infected with TB
  2. 9.6 million new TB cases annually
  3. TB kills 4,500 people a day
  4. 1.5 million people died of TB in 2014
  5. 480,000 developed multi drug resistant  TB(MDR-TB)
  6. 9.7% Of people with MDR-TB have extensively drug -resistant TB (XDR-TB)

Tuberculosis Prevention
To prevent the transmission of tuberculosis in healthcare settings, the CDC has issued guidelines that require most employees to be screened for tuberculosis upon being hired and subsequently on a regular, often annual, basis.

Some residential institutions, such as nursing homes, also screen all new residents for tuberculosis.

Screening for active TB is best accomplished by a chest x-ray .

Some other steps toward preventing the spread of TB include:

  • Improving the ventilation in indoor spaces so there are fewer bacteria in the air
  • Using germicidal ultraviolet lamps to kill airborne bacteria in buildings where people at high risk of tuberculosis live or congregate
  • Treating latent infection before it becomes active
  • Using directly observed therapy (DOT) in people with diagnosed tuberculosis (latent or active) to raise the likelihood of the disease being cured.

treatment Of Tuberculosis

Medications are the cornerstone of tuberculosis treatment. But treating TB takes much longer than treating other types of bacterial infections.

With tuberculosis, you must take antibiotics for at least six to nine months. The exact drugs and length of treatment depend on your age, overall health, possible drug resistance, the form of TB (latent or active) and the infection’s location in the body.

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Recent research suggests that a shorter term of treatment — four months instead of nine — with combined medication may be effective in keeping latent TB from becoming active TB. With the shorter course of treatment, people are more likely to take all their medication, and the risk of side effects is lessened. Studies are ongoing.

Most common TB drugs

If you have latent tuberculosis, you may need to take just one type of TB drug. Active tuberculosis, particularly if it’s a drug-resistant strain, will require several drugs at once The most common medications used to treat tuberculosis include:

Isoniazid

Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)

Ethambutol (Myambutol)

Pyrazinamide

If you have drug-resistant TB, a combination of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones and injectable medications, such as amikacin, kanamycin or capreomycin, are generally used for 20 to 30 months. Some types of TB are developing resistance to these medications as well.

A number of new drugs are being looked at as add-on therapy to the current drug-resistant combination treatment, including:

Bedaquiline

Linezolid

Medication side effects

Serious side effects of TB drugs aren’t common but can be dangerous when they do occur. All tuberculosis medications can be highly toxic to your liver. When taking these medications, call your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following:

Nausea or vomiting

Loss of appetite

A yellow color to your skin (jaundice)

Dark urine

A fever that lasts three or more days and has no obvious cause

Completing treatment is essential

After a few weeks, you won’t be contagious and you may start to feel better. It might be tempting to stop taking your TB drugs. But it is crucial that you finish the full course of therapy and take the medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Stopping treatment too soon or skipping doses can allow the bacteria that are still alive to become resistant to those drugs, leading to TB that is much more dangerous and difficult to treat.

To help people stick with their treatment, a program called directly observed therapy (DOT) is recommended. In this approach, a health care worker administers your medication so that you don’t have to remember to take it on your own.

Islam In Nigeria

    Islam in Nigeria

Nigeria has one of the largest Muslim populations in West Africa, with the Pew Research Center estimating that it is between 48.5% (2010) and 50.4% (2009). The CIA estimates 50% while the BBC estimates slightly over 50% (2007). Muslims in Nigeria are predominantly Sunni in the

Maliki school, which is also the governing Sharia law.[ citation needed ] However, there is a significant

Shia minority, primarily in Kaduna , Kano , Katsina and Sokoto State ; (see Shia in Nigeria). A smaller minority follow the Ahmadiyya , a reformatory sect originating in 19th century India. In particular Pew Forum on religious diversity identifies 3% as Ahmadi Muslims and 12 percent as Shia Muslims.
History

Islam was first documented in Nigeria in the 9th century.[citation needed] Religious archives showed Islam had been adopted as the religion of the majority of the leading figures in the Borno Empire during the reign of Mai (king) Idris Alooma (1571–1603), although a large part of that country still adhered to traditional religions. Alooma furthered the cause of Islam in the country by introducing Islamic courts, establishing mosques, and setting up a hostel in Makkah , the Islamic pilgrimage destination, for Kanuris .[8] It had spread to the major cities of the northern part of the country by the 16th century, later moving into the countryside and towards the Middle Belt uplands. However, there are some claims for an earlier arrival. The Nigeria-born Muslim scholar Sheikh Dr. Abu-Abdullah Abdul-Fattah Adelabu has argued that Islam had reached Sub-Sahara Africa, including Nigeria, as early as the 1st century of Hijrah through Muslim traders and expeditions during the reign of the Arab conqueror, Uqba ibn al Nafia (622–683) whose Islamic conquests under the

Umayyad dynasty, in Amir Muavia and Yazid periods, spread all Northern Africa or the Maghrib Al-Arabi , including present-day Algeria , Tunisia,

Libya and Morocco . 



CANDIDiASIS. Candidiasis is a type of fungal infection due to any type of candidia i.e any type of yeast. When it affects the mouth it is commonly called thrush.It is commonly identified by the white patches on the tongue or other areas of the mouth and throat. Other symptoms may include soreness and problem swallowing. When it affects the vagina it is commonly called yeast infection. Sign and symptoms include genital itching, burning and sometimes a white “cottage cheese like” from the vagina. Less commonly the penis may be affected resulting in itchiness.Very rarely the infection may become invasive spreading throughout the body resulting in fever along with other symptoms depending on the part of the body affected. Many types of candidia cause diseases with candidia albican being the most common. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS. The sign and symptoms vary depending on the area affected.Most candidal infection result in minimal complications such as redness, itching and discomfort though complication may be severe or even fatal if left untreated.In immunocompeten(healthy persons)candidiasis is usually a localised infection of the skin,fingernail, toenail or mucosal membrane including the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Common symptoms of gastrointestinal candidiasis in healthy individuals are anal itching, belching, indigestion, nausea, diarrhoea, gas, vomiting and gastric ulcer. CAUSES Candida yeast are generally present in healthy humans,frequently part of the human body’s normal oral and intestinal flora; and particularly on the skin, however their growth is normally limited by human immune system, and by competition of other micro organisms such as bacteria occupying the same location in the human body.Candida requires moisture for growth notably on the skin. For example, wearing a wet swimwear for long period of time is believed to be a risk factor. HIV/AIDS is one of the factors that increase the condition apart from cancer, mononucleosis, steroid, stress among others. DIAGNOSIS. Diagnosis of yeast infection is done either via microscopic examination or culturing. For identification using a light microscope, a scrapping or swab of the affected area is placed on a microscope slide. A single drop of 10% potassium hydroxide KOH solution is then added to the specimen.The KOH dissolves the skin cells but leave the candidia cells intact permitting the visualization of psedohyphae and budding yeast cells typical of many candidia species. PREVENTION. -A diet that supports the immune system and is not high in simple carbohydrate contributes to a healthy balance of the oral and intestinal flora. -Wearing a cotton underwear may help to reduce the risk of developing skin and vaginal yeast infection. – Oral hygiene can help prevent oral candidiasis when people have a weakened immune system. TREATMENT. Candidiasis is treated with antifungal medications; these include clotrimazole, nystatin, flucanazole, voricanazole, amphotericin B. Intravenous flucanazole or an intravenous echinocandin such as caspofungin are commonly used to treat immunocompromised or critically ill individuals.
*_Contribution_*
Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts that belong to the genus

Candida . There are over 20 species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is

Candida albicans . Candida yeasts normally reside in the intestinal tract and can be found on mucous membranes and skin without causing infection; however, overgrowth of these organisms can cause symptoms to develop. Symptoms of candidiasis vary depending on the area of the body that is infected.

Candidiasis that develops in the mouth or throat is called “ thrush” or oropharyngeal candidiasis. Candidiasis in the vagina is commonly referred to as a “ yeast infection.” Invasive candidiasis occurs when Candida species enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body. Click the links below for more information on the different types of

Candida infections.

For other fungal topics, visit the fungal diseases homepage.

Types of Candidiasis

Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis

Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis

Invasive Candidiasis

Global Emergence of Candida auris

Candida auris is an emerging fungus that presents a serious global health threat. Healthcare facilities in several countries have reported that C. auris has caused severe illness in hospitalized patients. C. auris is often resistant to multiple antifungal drugs.

Possible health benefits of watermelon

Health benefit. Com

Consuming fruits and vegetables of all kinds has long been associated with a reduced risk of many lifestyle-related health conditions. Many studies have suggested that increasing consumption of plant foods like watermelon decreases the risk of

obesity and overall mortality, diabetes, heart disease and promotes a healthy complexion and hair, increased energy, overall lower weight.

Along with cantaloupe and honeydew, watermelons are a member of the botanical family Cucurbitaceae.

Asthma prevention: The risks for developing

asthma are lower in people who consume a high amount of certain nutrients. One of these nutrients is vitamin C, found in many fruits and vegetables including watermelon.

Blood pressure: A study published by the American Journal of Hypertension found that watermelon extract supplementation reduced ankle blood pressure , brachial blood pressure and carotid wave reflection in obese middle-aged adults with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension and that watermelon extract improved arterial function.

Diets rich in lycopene may help protect against heart disease.

Cancer: As an excellent source of the strong antioxidant vitamin C as well as other antioxidants, watermelon can help combat the formation of free radicals known to cause cancer . Lycopene intake has been linked with a decreased risk of prostate cancer prevention in several studies.

Digestion and regularity: Watermelon, because of its water and fiber content, helps to prevent

constipation and promote regularity for a healthy digestive tract.

Hydration: Made up of 92% water and full of important electrolytes, watermelon is a great snack to have on hand during the hot summer months to prevent dehydration.

Inflammation: Choline is a very important and versatile nutrient in watermelon that aids our bodies in sleep, muscle movement, learning and memory. Choline also helps to maintain the structure of cellular membranes, aids in the transmission of nerve impulses, assists in the absorption of fat and reduces chronic

inflammation .1

Muscle soreness: Watermelon and watermelon juice have been shown to reduce muscle soreness and improve recovery time following exercise in athletes. Researchers believe this is likely do to the amino acid L-citrulline contained in watermelon.

Skin: Watermelon is also great for your skin because it contains vitamin A, a nutrient required for sebum production that keeps hair moisturized. Vitamin A is also necessary for the growth of all bodily tissues, including skin and hair.

Adequate intake of vitamin C (one cup of watermelon provides 21% of daily needs) is also needed for the building and maintenance of

collagen, which provides structure to skin and hair. Watermelon also contributes to overall hydration, which is vital for having healthy looking skin and hair.

ISLAM IS THE SOURCE OF ALL VALID KNOWLEDGE

ISLAM IS THE SOURCE OF ALL VALID KNOWLEDGE

1, the oldest University in the Guinness book of records was developed in the year 859 by Fatima al-Fihri in Morocco , University of Al-Qarawayin . so for the highest education of you, Muslims should be thanked
2, 90% of tools in chemistry Lab such as flask, graduated cylinder, crucible, beaker,eye dropper,pipet and others were made by Jabir ibn Hayyan, the father of chemistry
3, Neurology- the study of brain and its structure was foremost done by ibn Sina, the first Neurologist who was a Muslim 
4, the first institute of medicine was built in Cairo by Muslims which now spread across the glebe. Also, Muslim doctors were the first to use antimony (a metalloid) for its medicinal powers.
5, All the surgical instruments such as bone chisel, bone cutter,cannula, curette,forceps, pinzette ,lanzet and others were made by a Muslim called Abu -All Qosim all Zahrawi, the father of surgeon.
6, The first pharmacy was first built by Muslim in Baghdad according to international Journal of pharma therapy.
7, The most common Numerals of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 are Arabic Numeral
8, you’re browsing with I phones,Android, Laptop etc. they’re made possible through “a mathematician,,all,k-khwarizmi who created Algebra and algorithms ” Carly Florina
9 The words algorithm, deriving from Al-Khwarizmi’s Latinized name Algorismi, and algebra, deriving from the title of his AD 820 book Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala, Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala (“The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing”) are themselves Arabic loanwords.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/…/Islamic_contributions_to_Medie…
10,The founders of trigonometry, sphere, are Muslims

Al-Jayyani’s The book of unknown arcs of a sphere (a treatise on spherical trigonometry) had a “strong influence on European mathematics”. Regiomantus’ On Triangles (c. 1463) certainly took his material on spherical trigonometry (without acknowledgement) from Arab sources. Much of the material was taken from the 12th-century work of Jabir ibn Aflah (otherwise known as Geber), as noted in the 16th century by Gerolamo Cardano.
11,Optician

Jim fry motioned that “History has noticed Europe dominating the world in the past centuries through its knowledge and power but if we study early invention of mathematics, physics and astronomy, not surprisingly; all the credit goes to Muslim world of science. Muslim mathematicians worked in every field of mathematics such as Al-Jabir founded algebra. Galileo and Newton, the great scientists of their time, would never have been able to formulate the modern theories of mathematics and physics without the basic and important tools invented by Muslim scientists. Plato and Aristotle laid the institution of classical writing and texts in ancient Europe but these sculptures were lost in the history and were almost doomeKepLeng the Dark Age.”
12

Islam and Vocabularies:

The adoption of the techniques and materials from the Islamic world is reflected in the origin of many of the Arabic words now in use in the Western world.

Alchemy (whence Chemistry), from al kemiya (الكيمياء)Algebra, which comes from al-djabr (الجبر)Algorithm, from the name of the scientist al-Khwarizmi (الخوارزمي)Almanac, from al-manakh (المناخ) (timetables)Amber, from Anbar (عنبر)Artichoke, from ard-i-choke (أرضِ شوكي)Camphor, from kafurCarat (unit), from qīrāṭ (قيراط) (“mass”)Cotton, from koton (قطن)Gauze, from qazz (قز) (“raw silk”)Lacquer, from lakkLute, from al-ud (العود)Magazine, from makhâzin (مخازن)Mate (as in “Checkmate”), from mât (مات) (“Death”)Sorbet, from sharab (شراب \ شربة)Sugar, from soukkar (سكّر)Zero, via zephirum from şifr (صفر) (“zero”), as is Cipher.
Summarily,

CEO of Hewlett Packard stated that, there was once a civilization that was the greatest in the world. It was able to create a continental super-state that stretched from ocean to ocean, and from northern climes to tropics and deserts. Within its dominion lived hundreds of millions of people, of different creeds and ethnic origins. One of its languages became the universal language of much of the world, the bridge between the peoples of a hundred lands. Its armies were made up of people of many nationalities, and its military protection allowed a degree of peace and prosperity that had never been known. The reach of this civilization’s commerce extended from Latin America to China, and everywhere in between. And this civilization was driven more than anything, by invention. Its architects designed buildings that defied gravity. Its mathematicians created the algebra and algorithms that would enable the building of computers, and the creation of encryption. Its doctors examined the human body, and found new cures for disease. Its astronomers looked into the heavens, named the stars, and paved the way for space travel and exploration.

Jim fry motioned that “History has noticed Europe dominating the world in the past centuries through its knowledge and power but if we study early invention of mathematics, physics and astronomy, not surprisingly; all the credit goes to Muslim world of science. Muslim mathematicians worked in every field of mathematics such as Al-Jabir founded algebra. Galileo and Newton, the great scientists of their time, would never have been able to formulate the modern theories of mathematics and physics without the basic and important tools invented by Muslim scientists. Plato and Aristotle laid the institution of classical writing and texts in ancient Europe but these sculptures were lost in the history and were almost doomeKepLeng the Dark Age.”
H.G. Wells exclaimed,

“Islamic scholars gave the hope and opportunity of dominating the nature to the people and developed ‘experimental sciences methods’.”Islam chemists used “the experimental method” in a planned and systematic way and literally became the founders of experimental chemistry. Dr. Sigrid Hunke emphasizes this fact in the book “Allah’s sun over the Occident” by saying: “Muslims first initiated the planned observation method by repeating it masterfully, modifying and controlling it. Thus they established the experimental chemistry in sense of science. The English historian Custom stated, ‘Muslims upgraded the experimental chemistry to a level which is necessary for discovering modern organical and inorganical chemistry.'”
Read more at: http://www.modernghana.com/…/achievements-impacts-and-contr…

and

To the western world. Without Islam, humans wont have had any development!Why you must not depose Muslim at…

Posted by Suleiman Imam Muritala on Saturday, November 21, 2015