Tuberculosis


Meaning Of Tuberculosis
Toberculosis:- Is a chronic infectious disease that primarily affect the lungs(pulmonary TB or PTB)but can also spread to any part of the body (Extra pulmonary TB).The Causative Agent Of TB  is Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

How Does TB Spread

1- TB is spread by droplet nuclei

2- Expelled when person will infectious TB sneezes,speaks,spits or sings

3- Transmission is air bone through  inhalation of the released TB germs.

Common Sites Of TB Disease

1-Vertebral spine

2-Bone

3-Joint

4-Kidney &Urinary track

5-Upper respiratory tract (larynx)

6-Plueral membrane of lungs

7- Meninges of the brain (Meningitis)

8-Lymph node

9-Skin

Symptoms Of TB

  • Fever
  • Cough(>2wks)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tiredness
  • Coughing out blood
  • Chest pain 
  • Night sweats
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss

Global TB Burden 2015

  1. 1/3 of world’s  population is infected with TB
  2. 9.6 million new TB cases annually
  3. TB kills 4,500 people a day
  4. 1.5 million people died of TB in 2014
  5. 480,000 developed multi drug resistant  TB(MDR-TB)
  6. 9.7% Of people with MDR-TB have extensively drug -resistant TB (XDR-TB)

Tuberculosis Prevention
To prevent the transmission of tuberculosis in healthcare settings, the CDC has issued guidelines that require most employees to be screened for tuberculosis upon being hired and subsequently on a regular, often annual, basis.

Some residential institutions, such as nursing homes, also screen all new residents for tuberculosis.

Screening for active TB is best accomplished by a chest x-ray .

Some other steps toward preventing the spread of TB include:

  • Improving the ventilation in indoor spaces so there are fewer bacteria in the air
  • Using germicidal ultraviolet lamps to kill airborne bacteria in buildings where people at high risk of tuberculosis live or congregate
  • Treating latent infection before it becomes active
  • Using directly observed therapy (DOT) in people with diagnosed tuberculosis (latent or active) to raise the likelihood of the disease being cured.

treatment Of Tuberculosis

Medications are the cornerstone of tuberculosis treatment. But treating TB takes much longer than treating other types of bacterial infections.

With tuberculosis, you must take antibiotics for at least six to nine months. The exact drugs and length of treatment depend on your age, overall health, possible drug resistance, the form of TB (latent or active) and the infection’s location in the body.

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Recent research suggests that a shorter term of treatment — four months instead of nine — with combined medication may be effective in keeping latent TB from becoming active TB. With the shorter course of treatment, people are more likely to take all their medication, and the risk of side effects is lessened. Studies are ongoing.

Most common TB drugs

If you have latent tuberculosis, you may need to take just one type of TB drug. Active tuberculosis, particularly if it’s a drug-resistant strain, will require several drugs at once The most common medications used to treat tuberculosis include:

Isoniazid

Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)

Ethambutol (Myambutol)

Pyrazinamide

If you have drug-resistant TB, a combination of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones and injectable medications, such as amikacin, kanamycin or capreomycin, are generally used for 20 to 30 months. Some types of TB are developing resistance to these medications as well.

A number of new drugs are being looked at as add-on therapy to the current drug-resistant combination treatment, including:

Bedaquiline

Linezolid

Medication side effects

Serious side effects of TB drugs aren’t common but can be dangerous when they do occur. All tuberculosis medications can be highly toxic to your liver. When taking these medications, call your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following:

Nausea or vomiting

Loss of appetite

A yellow color to your skin (jaundice)

Dark urine

A fever that lasts three or more days and has no obvious cause

Completing treatment is essential

After a few weeks, you won’t be contagious and you may start to feel better. It might be tempting to stop taking your TB drugs. But it is crucial that you finish the full course of therapy and take the medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Stopping treatment too soon or skipping doses can allow the bacteria that are still alive to become resistant to those drugs, leading to TB that is much more dangerous and difficult to treat.

To help people stick with their treatment, a program called directly observed therapy (DOT) is recommended. In this approach, a health care worker administers your medication so that you don’t have to remember to take it on your own.

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