CANDIDiASIS. Candidiasis is a type of fungal infection due to any type of candidia i.e any type of yeast. When it affects the mouth it is commonly called thrush.It is commonly identified by the white patches on the tongue or other areas of the mouth and throat. Other symptoms may include soreness and problem swallowing. When it affects the vagina it is commonly called yeast infection. Sign and symptoms include genital itching, burning and sometimes a white “cottage cheese like” from the vagina. Less commonly the penis may be affected resulting in itchiness.Very rarely the infection may become invasive spreading throughout the body resulting in fever along with other symptoms depending on the part of the body affected. Many types of candidia cause diseases with candidia albican being the most common. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS. The sign and symptoms vary depending on the area affected.Most candidal infection result in minimal complications such as redness, itching and discomfort though complication may be severe or even fatal if left untreated.In immunocompeten(healthy persons)candidiasis is usually a localised infection of the skin,fingernail, toenail or mucosal membrane including the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Common symptoms of gastrointestinal candidiasis in healthy individuals are anal itching, belching, indigestion, nausea, diarrhoea, gas, vomiting and gastric ulcer. CAUSES Candida yeast are generally present in healthy humans,frequently part of the human body’s normal oral and intestinal flora; and particularly on the skin, however their growth is normally limited by human immune system, and by competition of other micro organisms such as bacteria occupying the same location in the human body.Candida requires moisture for growth notably on the skin. For example, wearing a wet swimwear for long period of time is believed to be a risk factor. HIV/AIDS is one of the factors that increase the condition apart from cancer, mononucleosis, steroid, stress among others. DIAGNOSIS. Diagnosis of yeast infection is done either via microscopic examination or culturing. For identification using a light microscope, a scrapping or swab of the affected area is placed on a microscope slide. A single drop of 10% potassium hydroxide KOH solution is then added to the specimen.The KOH dissolves the skin cells but leave the candidia cells intact permitting the visualization of psedohyphae and budding yeast cells typical of many candidia species. PREVENTION. -A diet that supports the immune system and is not high in simple carbohydrate contributes to a healthy balance of the oral and intestinal flora. -Wearing a cotton underwear may help to reduce the risk of developing skin and vaginal yeast infection. – Oral hygiene can help prevent oral candidiasis when people have a weakened immune system. TREATMENT. Candidiasis is treated with antifungal medications; these include clotrimazole, nystatin, flucanazole, voricanazole, amphotericin B. Intravenous flucanazole or an intravenous echinocandin such as caspofungin are commonly used to treat immunocompromised or critically ill individuals.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts that belong to the genus
Candida . There are over 20 species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is
Candida albicans . Candida yeasts normally reside in the intestinal tract and can be found on mucous membranes and skin without causing infection; however, overgrowth of these organisms can cause symptoms to develop. Symptoms of candidiasis vary depending on the area of the body that is infected.
Candidiasis that develops in the mouth or throat is called “ thrush” or oropharyngeal candidiasis. Candidiasis in the vagina is commonly referred to as a “ yeast infection.” Invasive candidiasis occurs when Candida species enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body. Click the links below for more information on the different types of
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Types of Candidiasis
Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis
Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis
Global Emergence of Candida auris
Candida auris is an emerging fungus that presents a serious global health threat. Healthcare facilities in several countries have reported that C. auris has caused severe illness in hospitalized patients. C. auris is often resistant to multiple antifungal drugs.